Differences in elevation, proximity to the Adriatic Sea and large river basins, as well as exposure to the winds account for climate differences.
Vojvodina possesses typical continental climate, with air masses from northern and western Europe which shape its climatic profile. South and South-west Serbia is subject to Mediterranean influences.
However, the Dinaric Alps and other mountain ranges contribute to the cooling down of most of the warm air masses.
Winters are quite harsh in Sandžak because of the mountains which encircle the plateau.
Mediterranean micro-regions exist throughout southern Serbia, in Zlatibor and the Pčinja District around valley and river Pčinja.
The average annual air temperature for the period 1961–90 for the area with an altitude of up to 300 m (984 ft) is 10.9 °C (51.6 °F).
The areas with an altitude of 300 to 500 m (984 to 1,640 ft) have an average annual temperature of around 10.0 °C (50.0 °F), and over 1,000 m (3,281 ft) of altitude around 6.0 °C (42.8 °F).
The lowest recorded temperature in Serbia was −39.5 °C (−39.1 °F) (January 13, 1985, Karajukića Bunari in Pešter), and the highest was 44.9 °C or 112.8 °F (July 24, 2007, Smederevska Palanka).