Head of State: The President of Hungary is the ceremonial head of state. The president is elected by the National Assembly, Hungary's parliament, for a term of five years. The president's role includes representing Hungary domestically and internationally, appointing certain high-ranking officials, and signing or vetoing legislation.
Head of Government: The Prime Minister of Hungary is the head of government and holds executive power. The prime minister is the leader of the political party or coalition that has the majority of seats in the National Assembly. The prime minister is responsible for running the government, implementing policies, and representing Hungary in international affairs.
National Assembly: Hungary has a unicameral parliament called the National Assembly or Országgyűlés. It consists of 199 members who are elected through a mixed electoral system. 106 members are elected through individual constituencies, while 93 members are elected through a national party list. The National Assembly is responsible for making laws, approving the budget, and overseeing the government's activities.
Political Parties: Hungary has a multi-party system with various political parties competing for seats in the National Assembly. Some of the prominent parties include Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance, Hungarian Socialist Party, Jobbik – Movement for a Better Hungary, Democratic Coalition, and Politics Can Be Different (LMP). The party or coalition with the majority of seats in the National Assembly forms the government.
Judiciary: Hungary has an independent judiciary that operates separately from the executive and legislative branches. The judiciary is responsible for interpreting laws, resolving disputes, and ensuring the constitutionality of legislation. The Constitutional Court of Hungary is the highest authority on constitutional matters.
It's worth noting that Hungary has received some criticism regarding its political climate, including concerns about the erosion of democratic institutions, media freedom, and the concentration of power in the ruling party. These issues have sparked debates and discussions both within Hungary and internationally.