The principle of independence and the political system were formulated in the first Constitution of Kazakhstan of January 1993, which was approved by referendum on 30 August 1995.
Kazakhstan government features
Kazakhstan has a parliamentary system with a president as head of the State. Kazakhstan last presidential election was in January 2006 for a seven-year term.
Kazakhstan president serves as commander-in-chief, sets foreign policy, can initiate legislation, and appoints Kazakhstan prime minister, subject to Parliamentary approval.
Kazakhstan parliament is the supreme legislative body and consists of two chambers, the Senate (Upper House) and the Mazhilis (Lower House).
The 47 members of Kazakhstan Senate are indirectly elected representatives of regional assemblies and appointees of Kazakhstan president.
The Mazhilis is composed of 67 elected deputies. Kazakhstan parliament is elected for a four-year term.
Kazakhstan prime minister is the head of the executive branch of government and is appointed by Kazakhstan president, with the approval of Kazakhstan parliament.
He chairs the Cabinet, which, as of January 2006, consists of three Deputy Prime Ministers, the Ministers of the 14 State Ministries and the 5 Chairmen of the State Agencies.
The heads of the local administrations (Akims of 14 oblasts and 2 cities) are appointed by Kazakhstan president.
Since December 1997, the capital of Kazakhstan has been Astana. From 1929 to 1997 the capital of Kazakhstan was the city of Almaty, founded in 1854.