The total fertility rate has been rated as low as 1.4 but has recently been estimated at 1.6 after accounting for the fact that older women contribute more to the number of births than in previous statistic models, and total fertility rates increased in younger generations.
Fertility was closely linked to educational achievement (with the less educated women having more children than the educated ones).
Persons, who adhere to no religion, have fewer children than Christians, also studies found that among Christians the more conservative ones had more children than the more liberal ones.
While most child-births in Germany happen within marriage, a growing number of children is born out-of-wedlock. In 2010 the out-of-wedlock-rate was 33 percent, more than twice of what it was in 1990.
More than 16 million people are of foreign/immigrant descent (first and second generation, including mixed heritage and ethnic German repatriates and their descendants). 96,1% of those reside in western Germany and Berlin.
About seven million of them are foreign residents, which is defined as those not having German citizenship. The largest ethnic group of non-German origin are the Turkish.
Since the 1960s, West and later reunified Germany has been attracting migrants primarily from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Turkey, many of whom (or their children) over time acquired German citizenship.
While most of these migrations had an economic background, Germany has also been a prime destination for refugees from many developing countries, in part because its constitution long had a clause giving a \'right\' to political asylum, but restrictions over the years have since made it less attractive.
German is the only official and most widely spoken language. Standard German is understood throughout the country.
Danish, Low German, the Sorbian languages (Lower Sorbian and Upper Sorbian), and the two Frisian languages, Saterfrisian and North Frisian, are officially recognized and protected as minority languages by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in their respective regions.
With speakers of Romany are living in all parts of Germany, the federal government has promised to take action to protect the language. Until now, only Hesse has followed Berlin's announcement, and agreed on implementing concrete measures to support Romany speakers.
Implementation of the Charter is poor. The monitoring reports on charter implementation in Germany show many provisions unfulfilled.