Two education systems exist in parallel in Afghanistan. Religious education is the responsibility of clerics at mosques, while the government provides free academic education at state schools. From age 7 to age 13 pupils attend primary schools where they learn the basics of reading, writing, arithmetic and their national culture.
Over 90% of all school buildings were severely damaged or destroyed by the Indonesian military and in the exodus of Indonesians out of East Timor, the nation lost 20% of its primary school teachers and 80% of secondary teachers, most of whom are not expected to return.
Education in the Micronesian island nation of Palau still follows the American system of Grades K to 12. It is mandatory until either the age of 16 is reached, or graduation from high school is achieved. There are approximately 20 elementary state schools dispersed through villages and islands, where pupils study for 6 years.
The first university in Thailand, Chulalongkorn University, was established in 1917. This was done by bringing together the School of Civil Servants, the Royal Medical College and the Engineering School. In the time since this fairly early start for the region, higher education in Thailand has grown considerably. As of July, 2008, there were 164 higher education institutions under the supervision of the Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education. Of these 164 institutions, 78 were public, 67 were private and 19 were cmmunity colleges.
The Japanese educational system was reformed after World War II. The old 6-5-3-3 system was changed to a 6-3-3-4 system (6 years of elementary school, 3 years of junior high school, 3 years of senior high school and 4 years of University) with reference to the American system. Gimukyoiku (compulsory education) time period is 9 years, 6 in shougakkou (elementary school) and 3 in chuugakkou (junior high school).
Schools in Scotland are administered by the Scottish Education Department and by local education authorities. For historical and organization information, see GREAT BRITAIN. Elementary and Secondary Schools. In the mid-1980s some 879,000 pupils were attending publicly maintained schools and about 31,900 were in private schools. The transfer from elementary to secondary schools generally takes place at the age of 12. For a discussion on specialized schools, see ENGLAND.