The Reformation took the ideas of Protestantism and its writings into the Balkans. In 1560, the Slovene capital Ljubljana established its own printing press and created the first translation of the bible in the Slovenian language in 1584.
Many significant figures in the history of Slovenia included the astronomer, monk and theologian Herman Sclavus of Carinthia, who wrote a translation of the Qur’an into the Latin language in the 12th Century.
Sclavus’s dream was to create a synthesis of Christianity, Islam and the pagan ideas of antiquity.
The polyphonist Jakob Handl, or Jacob Cariolus Galus, who lived in the 16th Century, also added to the heritage of the country, as well as Anton Jansa, one of the founders of the modern apiculture (bookkeeping) in Europe.
The mathematician Jurij Vega revised the logarithmic tables in the 18th Century.
The bishop, missionary and linguist Friderik Jernej Baraga was one of the first writers of dictionaries and grammar of the Amerindian languages in North America.
Slovenes boasted of their own university in 1918. But before this, Slovene students and scholars made contributions in universities of Europe.
Today, there are many Slovene artists and intellectuals in universities and scientific institutions throughout the world.
The French writer Charles Nodier in the 19th Century noted that because of their cultural history, a great number of Slovenes mastered two or three languages in addition to their own.
Slovene literature includes such well-known figures as France Preseren, who was influenced by Lord Byron and Alexander Pushkin, and is considered one of the greatest Slovene poets.
The prose writer Ivan Cankat was the first in the country to explore the psychological short novel and social drama. Cirl Kosmas was famous for his short stories in the 20th Century.