Executive power is exercised by the Government of Slovenia.
Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly and in minor part in the National Council.
The judiciary of Slovenia is independent of the executive and the legislature. Slovenia has little political instability.
Constitution of Slovenia
The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Ustava Republike Slovenije) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Slovenia.
It was adopted by the Slovenian National Assembly on December 23, 1991. The document is divided into ten chapters:
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
Economic and Social Relations
Organisation of the State (under this provision, two of the seats in the National Assembly are reserved, one each to members of the country's Italian and Hungarian national communities)
Constitutionality and Legality
The Constitutional Court
Procedure for Amending the Constitution
Transitional and Final Provisions
The constitution has been amended on four occasions since 1991:
On July 14, 1997 foreign citizens were granted permission to buy real estate in Slovenia as part of the convergence towards the European Union; this decision was part of the so called Spanish compromise.
On July 25, 2000 proportional voting system was entered directly in constitution to avoid legal gap that threatened to happen after the National Assembly didn't approve the law about this issue according to somewhat unclear referendum results: three voting systems were proposed to people but none of them won the absolute majority of voters.
In a disputed decision, the Constitutional Court of Slovenia ruled that if any law is to be passed, it is to be the law according to the option that got relative majority. In the political events that followed the time was running out and changing the constitution seemed like a good escape from status quo;
On March 7, 2003 the constitution was changed again to allow Slovenia to enter the European Union and NATO, if that would be the will of the people, which was shown to be the case in the referendum on March 23, 2003.
On June 23, 2004, three amendments to the Constitution were made. First one included disability as a personal circumstance which prohibits discrimination in the field of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Second one allowed to introduce candidacy quotas for state and local communities' elections in order to promote gender equality. The third one explicitly mentioned the right to a pension as an element of the right to social security.
The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term.
Following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nolminated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the Nationa Assembly.
The Council of Ministers is nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly.
The National Assembly (Državni zbor) has 90 members, elected for a four year term, 88 members elected by proportional representation using D'Hondt formula and 2 members elected by ethnic minorities using the Borda count.
The President of the National Assembly of Slovenia is elected by the deputies and requires 46 votes to be elected. Currently, this position is held by Gregor Virant, who won against his opponent Maša Kociper with 52 votes against 38.
Virant was supported by the Slovenian Democratic Party, the Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia, New Slovenia – Christian People's Party, the Slovenian People's Party and his own party the Gregor Virant's Civic List.