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Politics of Georgia


The Politics of Georgia is based on a presidential representative democratic republic (semi-presidential system), with a multi-party system, and the President as the head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of the Georgian Government.


Executive power is exercised by the government.

Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament.

Since the Rose Revolution, the party system has been dominated by the National Movement - Democrats.

Georgia has been a democratic republic since the first multiparty, democratic parliamentary elections of October 28, 1990.

The Georgian state is highly centralized, except for the autonomous regions of Abkhazia, Adjara and South Ossetia.

Abkhazia and South Ossetia have seceded unilaterally from Georgia and would be given autonomous status if Georgia's territorial integrity were restored.

These regions had an autonomous status within the Georgian SSR during Soviet rule.

Consideration of replacing Georgia's republic with some form of constitutional monarchy has become part of the Georgian political debate since the Georgian Orthodox primate and other leading Georgians suggested the idea in 2007.

Executive branch

The head of state is the President, who is elected for a term of five years. His constitutional successor is the Chairman of the Parliament. The president appoints a Prime Minister, who serves as the head of government.

Legislative branch

The Parliament of Georgia (Sak'art'velos Parlamenti), also known as the Umaghlesi Sabcho (Supreme Council), has 235 members, elected for a four year term - 150 seats by proportional representation, 75 in single-seat constituencies and 10 given to the representatives of the displaced persons from the separatist region of Abkhazia.

However, this situation will change when the next elections are held (likely to be 2008).

According to the constitutional amendments passed in 2003 the parliament will consist of only 150 members elected with the proportional representation system and will be fully refurbished.

Judicial branch

Georgia has a Supreme Court, with judges elected by the Parliament on the president's recommendation, and a Constitutional Court.