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Geography of Macedonia


Macedonia which is slightly smaller than the state of Vermont is a landlocked state in the heart of the Balkans. The geography of Macedonia is made up of mountains, three great natural lakes and small basins of agricultural land. It's a beautiful scenic country overflowing with natural splendor. The geography of Macedonia conjointly with its diverse variations makes up an attractive picture.



Its located in Southeastern Europe, north of Greece and between the Љara and Rhodope, which frame the valley of the Vardar River.

Geographically Macedonia is 41°50'N and 22°00'E. It's bordered by Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south and Albania to the west.

Land Boundaries-

Macedonia borders a total land of 766 km shared with Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km and Serbia 221 km. however, because Macedonia is a landlocked country, it has no coastline.


Total area covered: 25,333 sq km
Land: 24,856 sq km
Water: 477 sq km

Land Topography-

Macedonian geography is generally a mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys. The small basins are usually used as agricultural land, with a total of 550 sq km for irrigation.

The country has three large natural lakes, each divided by a frontier line. They are the Ohrid Lake, Prespa Lake and Dojran Lake.

Macedonia's geography is also bisected by the Vardar River which is the largest and most important river of the country.

The Vardar basin, including two-thirds of the territory of Macedonia comprises of fertile land that is very important for agriculture.

The lowest point of elevation is the Vardar River with 50 m near Gevgelija, and the highest point is Golem Korab with 2,753 m. It's the highest peak of Mount Korab which is the highest mountain of Macedonia. The height from the sea-level is 2764 m.

Land Usage-

Macedonian natural resources includes low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, sulfur, nickel, tungsten, chromite, manganese, timber, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum and arable land.
Arable land: 22.01%
Permanent crops: 1.79%
Other: 76.2%


Macedonia's climate is relatively warm with dry summers and autumns. The country also experiences cold winters with heavy snowfall. An excellent time to visit Macedonia is between May to October, as it's the warmest and driest part of the year.

In summer the average temperature is 23° C or 73° F and a light sweater in the evening makes it quite pleasant. On the other hand the winters are very cold with an average temperature of 2° C or 35° F. Maximum summer temperatures goes up to 40° C and the lowest winter temperatures drop to about -30° C.

The entire territory of Macedonia with its latitudinal extent is a transitional region between the Mediterranean and continental climates.

Temperate Mediterranean type of climate is experienced along the valleys of the Vardar and Strumica rivers. The interior of the country has a moderate continental climate with warm and dry summers and cold and wet winters.

Winters are fraught with lots of snow, cold chilled winds and even rain drizzling.

The rainfall is also insufficient because of the openness of the Aegean Sea river basin and the high mountains reaching 2,700 m. the geography of Macedonia receives about 500-700 mm rainfall annually, badly distributed throughout the year.

Natural hazards-

There are high seismic risks in the Macedonian geography.