Population density one person per 1.6 square km. 68% of the total populations are young people under the age of 35. The average life expectancy is just over 65 year. The present urban population is above 1 million. In Ulaanbaatar having 800,000 inhabitants-one third of the total population of Mongolia.
Mongolian ethnic and linguistic group.
Now a day in Mongolia about 20 ethnic groups of either Mongol or Turkish origin. Mongolian ethnic groups into main 2 parts they are named Oirat (eastern of Mongolia ), and the western ones (Khalkha and Barga). About 80% of population is Khalkha ethnic group.
In the western part of the country, significant slice of the population speaks a dialect of Turkish. The Largest of these ethnic groups are the Kazakh about 5% of population, the Uriankhai -Tuva, Tsaatan, and Khoton.
Oirat groups are speaking slightly different variation of Mongolia. They are subdivided into several ethnic groups: the Bayat (about 2 % of population.), the Dorvod (about 3% of population), the Olot and Torguut, Buryat ethnic group (about 2 % of population).
In addition, there are some 3.5 million Mongols in China (Inner Mongolia , Qinghai , Xingjian), and about 500,000 in Russia , mainly Buryat from Siberia , but also some Kalmuk.
Mongolian Language and Literature.
The Mongolian language belongs to the Ural - Altaic language family. This included Kazakh, Turkish, Korean and Finnish. Today more than 10 million people speak Mongolian.
They live in Mongolia , Buriat republic of Russian federation , Inner Mongolia in China , Shingjan and Gansu regions of China , Tibet and a few people living in the State of New Jersey State in the USA . The history of Mongolian language divided into the old, middle and modern Mongolian periods.
The old Mongolian continued from ancient times till 12 Century. Middle Mongolian period is 12-16 th Centuries. That's the time when the "Secret History of Mongols", Arab Mongolian dictionary, Persian- Mongolian Dictionary and other important documents including H'Phags-pa square letter
Document composed in 1269. The modern Mongolian period started in the 17 th Century. The beginning of the period is characterized by the development of the standard written Mongolian language and book printing that use to wooden printing blocks.
Mongolians have invented and used about 10 different kinds of scripts, letters and characters; square, Tod and Soyombo letters made a significant contribution to the development of the Mongolian language.