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Political System in Mongolia


In 1989 when communism was starting to fall elsewhere, many Mongolian weren't really ready for the change.


Some a group of young professors and activists formed Mongolian democratic Union. In 1990 March they organized hanger strike in Sukhbaatar Square .The hunger strike forced resignation of the MPRP when the party agreed to meet the demands of the strikers.

In the election of July 1990 the MPRP received 60 % of the vote but the party had agreed to a major reformation of government resulting in a democratic revolution and a market economy. So In 1991 Mongolia has moved into democratic system, it means multiple party systems.

State Hural was adopted the new constitution in January 1992. The State Hural is the highest legislative body. Mongolian State Hural has one chamber with 76 members. The executive organization is the President and Government in Mongolia

In October 1992, the Mongolian Democratic Union became a political party along with a number of new parties that banded together to endorse P. Ochirbat for president. He won the presidential election in an overwhelming victory.

The 1996 election represented an important change in Mongolia , as democratic forces attained government power for the first time. In 1997, the presidential election took place, and MPRP member Natsagiin Bagabandi became President.

Thus, the parliamentary majority was balanced by the President, nominated from the minority party. In July 2000, a national election brought the MPRP back into power when it gained 72 seats in Parliament and formed the Government (Prime Minister and Cabinet) without any opposition.

Following the election, the opposition parties, which had divided into separate parties before the election, began taking steps to reunite into one large opposition party once again. In May 2001, President Bagabandi was reelected, affirming a government and presidency of MPRP members.

In 2004 Mongolia has Parliamentary election and voted new Parliamentary members. Mongolia has 13 ministers. In 2005 Nambariin Enkhbayar won the Presidential election.

There are three kinds of election in Mongolia .

1. Parliamentary election: The State hural is the highest organ of state power and legislative body. Hural elected by citizens of Mongolia entitled to vote. Citizens of Mongolia who has reached suffrage age of 18 years. The Sessions take place every 6 months Mongolia has named "autumn, spring" 

2. Presidential election: Mongolian President is symbol of head embodiment of the unity of the people. An indigenous citizen of Mongolia who has attained the age of 45 years and permanently resided as a minimum for the last 5 years in the native land. The president of Mongolia for a term of 4 years.

Hural announces the date of election at least 75 days before the day of election. President election conducted in two stages.

Political parties that have seats in the parliament nominate their candidates one candidate per party or coalition of party at the primary stage citizens of Mongolia eligible to vote it means those who reached 18 years old and staying in their country on the day of voting Mongolian president just elected 2 times and term 4 years.

A candidate who wins the presidential election takes an catch of the President 30 days after the presidential election swear that he/ she will guard and defend the independence and sovereignty of Mongolia , Freedom of the people and National unity follow the Constitution and faithfully perform duties of the President of Mongolia.

3. Representative election / citizen: This election is elected province, city bag, horoo, districts by their respective governors. Candidates for governors are nominated by the Hural of respective aimags the capital city soums, districts, bags, and horoos.

Governors of provinces and the capital city are appointed by the prime minister, soum and city district by their governors / province, city./ governors of bags and horoos by soum and district governors respectively for term of 4 years.