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Geography of Mongolia


Mongolia is a large landlocked country in eastern and central Asia. It is bordered by Russia and China and its capital and largest city is Ulaanbaatar.


Mongolia is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world with a population density of 5.25 people per square mile (2.02 people per square kilometer).

Mongolia is known for its rugged terrain, semi-nomadic population (mainly in the countryside and about 30% of its population) and rich mineral resources.

Mongolia is the 18th largest country in the world and it is the world's second largest landlocked country (behind Kazakhstan). Its topography is varied but it is rugged and mainly undeveloped outside of Ulaanbaatar.

Mongolia's land consists of large desert and semi desert plains, the Gobi Desert in its south-central regions, a grassy steppe area and rugged mountains in the west and southwest parts of the country.

The highest point in Mongolia is Nayramadlin Orgil at 14,350 feet (4,374 m) while its lowest point is Hoh Nuur at 1,837 feet (560 m).

The climate of Mongolia is mostly desert and/or continental. As a result there are very large daily and seasonal temperature ranges.

For example Ulaanbaatar has an average January temperature of -17F (-27C) and an average July temperature of 74˚F (23˚C). 

It is considered the world's coldest capital city. Precipitation falls mainly in northern Mongolia during the winter.

In the Gobi Desert and the country's southern regions, there is little to no precipitation.