The National Constitution mandates a separation of powers in three branches. Executive power is exercised solely by the President. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the National Congress. The Judiciary power is vested on Tribunals and Courts of Civil Law and a nine-member Supreme Court of Justice, all of them independent of the executive and the legislature.
Paraguay's highly public government was fundamentally changed by the 1992 constitution, which reinforced a division of powers that in the last two Constitutions existed mostly in writing.
The president, popularly elected for a 5-year term, appoints a cabinet. The president nominates the Council of Ministers. The presidential elections of 2008 were won by Fernando Lugo, a Roman Catholic bishop whose ministerial duties have been suspended on his request by the Holy See. It's the first time in 61 years that the Colorado Party lost a presidential election in Paraguay, and only a second time that a leftist will serve as president (first time was in 1936–37) and first time freely elected.
The workplace of the President of Paraguay is the Palacio de los Lopez, in Asuncion. The Presidential Residence is Mburuvichá Roga, also in Asuncion.
Once presidents leave office, they are granted by the Constitution the speaking-but-non-voting position of Senator for life.
In Paraguay, the post of First Lady is official, and thus the Office of the First Lady the Nation of the Republic of Paraguay was created.
According to Paraguayan law, this office depends structurally and financially upon the Presidency of the Republic. The office exercises mainly social functions, but also those related to health, through the REPADEH Foundation.
The National Congress (Congreso Nacional) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies has 80 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation. The Chamber of Senators has 45 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation.
For other political parties see List of political parties in Paraguay. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Paraguay.
Paraguay's highest court is the Supreme Court of Paraguay. The Senate and the president select its nine members on the basis of recommendations from a constitutionally created Magistrates Council. The Supreme Court supervises all other components of the judicial branch, which include appellate courts with three members each in the areas of criminal, civil, administrative, and commercial jurisdiction; courts of first instance in these same four areas; justices of the peace dealing with more minor issues; and military courts.
The Constitution of Paraguay quotes "The law will regulate the various areas in which these officials and employees can provide their services, including the judicial, the diplomatic and consular professions, the areas of scientific and technological research, civil services, military and police.