Varying in width between 55 and 90 km (34 and 56 mi), the land is mainly flat (the highest point is 103 m (338 ft)) and rocky.
Notable features include coastal salt pans, elevated limestone formations (the Dukhan anticline) along the west coast under which lies the Dukhan oil field, and massive sand dunes surrounding Khawr al Udayd, an inlet of the Persian Gulf in the southeast known to local English speakers as the Inland Sea.
Of the islands belonging to Qatar, Halul is the most important. Lying about 90 km (56 mi) east of Doha, it serves as a storage area and loading terminal for oil from the surrounding offshore fields. Hawar and the adjacent islands immediately off the west coast are the subject of a territorial dispute between Qatar and Bahrain.
The capital, Doha, is located on the central east coast on a sweeping (if shallow) harbor. Other ports include Umm Said, Al Khawr, and Al Wakrah. Only Doha and Umm Said are capable of handling commercial shipping, although a large port and a terminal for loading natural gas are planned at Ras Laffan Industrial City, north of Al Khawr.
Coral reefs and shallow coastal waters make navigation difficult in areas where channels have not been dredged.
Qatar shares its land border with Saudi Arabia. The boundary with Saudi Arabia was settled in 1965 but never demarcated. Qatar's northwest coast is fewer than 30 km (19 mi) from the main islands of Bahrain, whilst the small Hawar Islands of Bahrain are only 1.4 km off that coast.
Doha is the capital of the country and the major administrative, commercial, and population center. In 1993 it was linked to other towns and development sites by a system of about 1,000 km (620 mi) of paved roads. Doha's international airport has an approximately 4,500 m (14,800 ft) main runway, capable of receiving all kinds of aircraft.