All water should be regarded as being potentially contaminated. Water used for drinking, brushing teeth or making ice should have first been boiled or otherwise sterilised. Milk is unpasteurised and should be boiled. Powdered or tinned milk is available and is advised. Avoid dairy products that are likely to have been made from unboiled milk. Only eat well-cooked meat and fish, preferably served hot. Vegetables should be cooked and fruit peeled.
Vaccinations against tuberculosis and hepatitis B are sometimes recommended. Avoid swimming or paddling in fresh water due to the risk of Bilharzia; swimming pools that are well chlorinated and maintained are safe. Cholera is a serious risk and precautions are essential.