Overview of Gibraltar

Overview of Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, bordered by Spain to the north. It is known as "The Rock" due to its prominent landmark, the Rock of Gibraltar, which is a massive limestone formation rising over 400 meters (1,400 feet) above sea level.


Here are some key points about Gibraltar:

  1. History: Gibraltar has a rich and diverse history. It has been inhabited since ancient times and has been under various ruling powers, including the Moors, Spanish, and British. It has been a British territory since 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht.

  2. Geography: The territory of Gibraltar covers an area of only 6.7 square kilometers (2.6 square miles) and is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar. It is strategically positioned at the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar, which connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Population: Gibraltar has a population of around 34,000 people. The majority of the population is of mixed British, Spanish, Genoese, and other Mediterranean descent. English is the official language, but Spanish is also widely spoken.

  4. Economy: Gibraltar has a thriving economy with a focus on financial services, online gambling, tourism, and shipping. It benefits from a favorable tax regime, which has attracted numerous offshore companies. The territory's strategic location also makes it an important center for maritime trade.

  5. Governance: Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory, which means it is self-governing but remains under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom. It has its own government and a Chief Minister who is the head of government. The UK is responsible for defense and foreign affairs.

  6. Landmarks and Tourism: The Rock of Gibraltar is the most iconic landmark and a popular tourist attraction. It offers stunning views of the surrounding area, including the Strait of Gibraltar and the African coastline. Other notable attractions include St. Michael's Cave, the Moorish Castle, and the Gibraltar Botanic Gardens. Gibraltar is also famous for its Barbary macaques, the only wild monkeys in Europe.

  7. Border Dispute: Gibraltar has been a subject of contention between the UK and Spain for many years. Spain asserts a territorial claim over Gibraltar and has occasionally increased border controls, leading to tensions between the two countries. However, the majority of Gibraltarians have consistently expressed their desire to remain under British sovereignty in various referendums.

  8. European Union: Gibraltar was a part of the European Union (EU) by virtue of its relationship with the UK. However, following the UK's withdrawal from the EU in 2020 (Brexit), Gibraltar left the EU along with the UK. A separate agreement, known as the Gibraltar Protocol, was negotiated between the UK and Spain to establish a framework for Gibraltar's future relationship with the EU.

Overall, Gibraltar is a unique and vibrant territory with a fascinating history, stunning natural beauty, a robust economy, and a distinct blend of British and Mediterranean influences.