The indigenous population consists of three ethnic groups. The Hutus, who comprise the majority of the population (85%), are farmers of Bantu origin. The Tutsis (14% before the Genocide, probably less than 10% now) are a pastoral people who arrived in the area in the 15th century. Until 1959, they formed the dominant caste under a feudal system based on cattleholding.
The Twa (pygmies) (1%) are thought to be the remnants of the earliest settlers of the region.
Languages of Rwanda
Kinyarwanda is the first language of almost the entire population of Rwanda. It, French, and English are the official languages of the country. Rwandan Sign Language is used by the educated deaf population.
Since the 1994 genocide, the complications of relations with the current French government, the return of numerous Tutsi refugees who went to Uganda (anglophone), and also the intervention of the United States, English has been used by more of the population and administration.
In 2008 the government changed the medium of education from French to English.