The political system of Islamic Republic of Iran is the result of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the first of its type in the world. Therefore, Iran political system established afterward should have been defined according to the ideals of such a revolution.
An Overview of Iran Political Structure
You have to learn about the structure of power to find out who is who. Iran political structure can be realized if you look at it as two sections: Iran government, which works according to Iranian Constitution and Islam, and other political entities, which help the formation of the complete political structure.
More importantly, the supreme leader who is the highest authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran supervises the above two categories.
Islamic Revolution gained victory as a result of the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini. After the demise of the founder of Islamic Republic of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei was given the control of leadership of Islamic Revolution. Iran's leadership is the backbone of Iran political system.
Therefore, Iranian constitution is one element upon which Iran government is based. Besides, Iran government functions via its three branches:
Other Iranian Political Entities along within Iran Political Structure
Islamic Republic of Iran functions in its unique format of a collaboration of some side-organizations together with the powers mentioned before under the supervision of the supreme leader. These organs of state are:
Assembly of Experts: Assembly of Experts (Majlis-e Khobregan) is part of Iran political structure formed after the demise of Ayatollah Khomeini to elect a leader. They are also in charge of determining if the leader, or any member of the leadership council, can efficiently accomplish his duties.
Iran Guardian Council: It is the council of sages known as the Council of Guardians of the Constitution. They check the compatibility and conformity of the bills and motions passed by Majlis with the Islamic canon and the Constitution.
Expediency Discernment Council of the System: This council has been established to overcome the differences of standpoints between the Majlis and the Guardian Council. This council plays a major role in Iran political system.
Supreme Council for National Security: It is an institution within Iran political structure to watch over the Islamic Revolution and safeguard the national interests, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
City and Village Councils: They form the decision making and administrating organs of the state together with the parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Majlis. This is a vital ingredient of Iran political system.