According to 2012 government survey, the fertility rate was 5.0, with 3.7 in urban areas and 6.3 in rural areas.
French, the official language, is taught in schools and serves as a lingua franca in the country. An estimated 65 languages are spoken in Ivory Coast. One of the most common is Dyula, Bete which acts as a trade language as well as a language commonly spoken by the Muslim population.
Ethnic groups include Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 30,000 Lebanese and 45,000 French; 2004). 77% of the population are considered Ivoirians.
Since Ivory Coast has established itself as one of the most successful West African nations, about 20% of the population (about 3.4 million) consists of workers from neighbouring Liberia, Burkina Faso and Guinea.
4% of the population is of non-African ancestry. Many are French,Lebanese, Vietnamese and Spanish citizens, as well as Protestant missionaries from the United States and Canada.
In November 2004, around 10,000 French and other foreign nationals evacuated Ivory Coast due to attacks from pro-government youth militias. Aside from French nationals, there are native-born descendants of French settlers who arrived during the country's colonial period.