Water is scarce and all water should be regarded as being potentially contaminated. Drinking water outside main cities and towns is likely to be contaminated and sterilisation is considered essential. Milk is unpasteurised and should be boiled. Powdered or tinned milk is available and is advised. Avoid all dairy products made from unboiled milk. Only eat well-cooked meat and fish. Vegetables should be cooked and fruit peeled.
Bilharzia (schistosomiasis) is present; avoid swimming and paddling in fresh water. Vaccination against meningococcal meningitis and hepatitis B is sometimes recommended. Hepatitis E and dengue fever occur. HIV/AIDS is prevalent. The hot, dusty environment can exacerbate breathing problems. Rabies is present. For those at high risk, vaccination before arrival should be considered. If you are bitten, seek medical advice without delay.