Political Structure of Bulgaria

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Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic. The head of state is the president, elected through a popular vote for a period of five years. In case the president cannot fulfil the required duties, the position is taken over by the vice president, elected on the same ticket.

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The president is the wartime commander-in-chief and has the right to convoke a consultative council on national security (a representative body including all major parliamentary parties), appoint part of the central bank board and the media regulator.

The president may return legislation for reconsideration to parliament, but the veto can be overruled by an absolute majority.

The parliament (National Assembly) has 240 members elected through a proportional vote for a period of four years.

Parties qualify for parliamentary representation if they get at least 4% of the vote.

The assembly approves legislation through a simple majority and constitutional amendments through a majority of two-thirds. However, an ordinary assembly cannot adopt constitutional amendments that would change the structure of the state government.

In order to do that, or adopt a new constitution, a grand assembly is elected, which comprises 400 members.

The cabinet holds most of the executive power and is approved through an absolute majority of 50% plus 1 of all MPs. In order for a vote of no confidence in the cabinet to succeed, it must be supported by at least 50% of all MPs.

The central government has authority in local districts through district governors, appointed by the cabinet. Other local officials, including mayors and local assemblies, are elected in proportional votes for a period of four years.

The level of fiscal decentralization is relatively low and municipalities are heavily dependent on the central government.